A Finite Element to Perform 3D Shakedown Analysis for Limited Kinematic Hardening Materials

Domingos E. S. Nery, Reinaldo J. Jospin


The use of the Design by Analysis (DBA) route is a modern trend in pressure vessel and piping international codes in mechanical engineering. However, to apply the DBA to structures under variable mechanical and thermal loads, it is necessary to assure that the plastic collapse modes, alternate plasticity and incremental collapse (with instantaneous plastic collapse as a particular case), be precluded. The tool available to achieve this target is the shakedown theory. Unfortunately, the practical numerical applications of the shakedown theory result in very large nonlinear optimization problems with nonlinear constraints. Precise, robust and efficient algorithms and finite elements to solve this problem in finite dimension has been a more recent achievements. However, to solve real problems in an industrial level, it is necessary also to consider more realistic material properties as well as to accomplish 3D analysis. Limited kinematic hardening, is a typical property of the usual steels and it should be considered in realistic applications. In this paper, a new finite element with internal thermodynamical variables to model kinematic hardening materials is developed and tested. This element is a mixed ten nodes tetrahedron and through an appropriate change of variables is possible to embed it in a shakedown analysis software developed by Zouain and co-workers for elastic ideally-plastic materials, and then use it to perform 3D shakedown analysis in cases with limited kinematic hardening materials.

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